Friday, November 16, 2012

OpenVAS 5.0 Appliance Fixes

Spent some time today getting the OpenVAS downloadable appliance working today.  The first piece that is missing is the necessary step of fixing the timezone.  If the timezone of the client (most likely your host OS) and the server VM doesn't match, you will run into an issue where when you try to login to GSAD with a browser, you will receive the error "Session has expired, Please login again".  A quick Google search lead me to this post:

The solution listed there used the ntpdate command to get the clock back in sync, however, it didn't entirely address my issue.  The other issue for me was that the timezone was EST, not MST like my client system, or UTC like my servers.  To fix that, run the following commands as root:

apt-get install ntp
cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/[country/city or timezone] /etc/localtime

where country/city for me was America/Denver, for example.

From there, it works "out of the box".  Well, sorta.  If you follow the advice on the download page:

"You should upgrade the base system immediately to install all security updates published meanwhile. The base system is Debian Squeeze, so you need to run "apt-get dist-upgrade" or other managament tools you might prefer."

it stops working again.

Two issues that arose with this.

First, the VM that was created for me by opening the OVA appliance image in VMware Workstation created a disk of 8GBs, which is fine until you decide to update it.  Upon running "apt-get dist-upgrade", the partition fills up before the update finishes.  Once I realized that was happening, I paused the "apt-get dist-upgrade" run with ctrl-z, and removed the filesystem reservation from the ext3 filesystem with the command "tune2fs -m0 /dev/sda1".  That freed up enough disk space to allow the process to finish.  Keep in mind, this is a quick fix, and may not be enough to get around this in the future.  In that case, you'll need to extend the disk size in the VM settings, and then resize the partition within the VM - no small task.

Update: Had some time to do some more digging, and found that the majority of the disk space is used by the /root/source directory, and one file in particular /root/source/dummy at 2.4GBs.  It's not clear if this file is important, or even what it is.  bzip2'd the file, and the resulting size was 1.8KB, so obviously not much real data in it.  If you need even more disk space, /root/source/debian has a lot of source tarballs that can probably be removed.

Second issue I ran into was that upon logging into gsad via a browser, the gsad process would max out the CPU, and nothing would happen.  Ran strace on the process, and it would just sit and spin in an infinite loop.  Back to Google, which turned up a string of mailing list posts, but the first response lead me down the right path:

(Related to that email thread: People, stop whining about free services/software.  They are free.  Either help fix the problem, or shut up and go buy something.  Then complain to the folks you just paid.)

The issue is with the newer libmicrohttpd that was installed by "apt-get dist-upgrade" breaking gsad.  To fix this, run the following as root:

cd /root/libmicrohttpd/libmicrohttpd-0.9.15/
./configure && make && make check
cp ./src/daemon/.libs/ /usr/local/lib/
ln -s /usr/local/lib/ /usr/local/lib/
ldconfig -v

In the ldconfig output, you should see listed in /usr/local/lib BEFORE the system installed in /usr/lib. Reboot, and now gsad will use the new (older) version of libmicrohttpd, which works.


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Friday, August 24, 2012

CentOS/RHEL Shrink Partitions

Increasing LVM partition sizes in CentOS/RHEL 5.X is infinitely easier than shrinking them, but in the rare instance where you might have to, here's a quick guide on a couple of gotchas. If you need to shrink the / partition (probably the rarest occurrence), you're stuck booting off a LiveCD and hoping for the best.

Now I bet you're saying something along the lines of "but all the other partitions should be easy, right?" Uh, no, particularly /usr. Why? Well, someone decided that the LVM utilities should reside under /usr. Not a big deal, they provide a static /sbin/lvm.static, which, while the syntax is slightly different, provides most (all?) of the functionality you are used to from the LVM utils.

Great, problem solved, right?! Nope, not quite. While /bin/bash (default root shell) doesn't depend on libraries under /usr, it does hold open files from the /usr tree. That prevents you from un-mounting /usr.

To shrink "system" partitions (except /, see above), you will likely need to be in single user mode, but before you do that, run chsh:

[root@centos5 ~]# chsh
Changing shell for root.
New shell [/bin/bash]: /bin/sh
Shell changed.
[root@centos5 ~]#

to change the login shell for the root user. After you are done, you can switch it back. Now reboot into single user mode.

Once in single user mode, you'll notice the prompt has now changed to:


or similar. Even though /bin/sh is just a symlink to /bin/bash, bash detects that it's being run as sh, runs with a reduced feature set, which doesn't require it to open files on /usr.

To shrink the /usr partition:

  • umount /usr 
  • e2fsck -f /dev/path/to/lvm/partition 
  • resize2fs /dev/path/to/lvm/partition  [new size slightly smaller than desired final result]
  • lvm.static lvmreduce -L [new size] /dev/path/to/lvm/partition
  • resize2fs /dev/path/to/lvm/partition
  • e2fsck -f /dev/path/to/lvm/partition
  • mount /usr  
Wash, rinse, repeat for other partitions.

Enjoy. -R

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Wednesday, September 02, 2009

Community SANS Security 401: Security Essentials Bootcamp Style in Boulder, Colorado - Discount Code!

I will be teaching (!) SANS Security 401 in Boulder, Colorado this Oct. 19 - 24th, 2009. This is a great "intro" class for folks starting out in computer and network security. The course covers the most common issues facing computer security professionals today. It's both broad and deep in it's scope of information. The course is broken out into the following daily topics:

Day 1: Networking Concepts
Day 2: Defense In-Depth
Day 3: Internet Security Technologies
Day 4: Secure Communications
Day 5: Windows Security
Day 6: Linux Security

Follow the links above for more detail on the topics covered for each day.

I'm working on getting some guest speakers for the lunch breaks covering more advanced topics. If you know of any folks local to the Boulder area that would be interesting to hear from, let me know!

Discount Code: If you use the discount code COINS-RF when registering, you'll get a 10% discount off the price of the course. Need a bigger discount? Contact me at rfifarek at sans DOT org for more information.

Department of Defense employees and contractors: Please note that the Security 401 SANS Security Essentials course prepares you to pass the GSEC and S+ certifications. These are two of the certifications which meet the requirements listed in DoD directive 8570.1 for IAT Level II employees and contractors. For details, click on


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Tuesday, July 28, 2009

WIP: Steps to Grow Physical Volume on LVM on Virtual Machine

This is a work in progress, expect the post to change, perhaps drastically. This isn't the "simplest" way to do this, you could do this all online, but this allowed us to maintain consistency in setup across multiple physical and virtual machines.

Skeleton outline:

- Snapshot and shutdown the VM (bummer)
- Within VMware Infrastructure Client, extend the disk allocation for the VM
- Power on the VM
- Check that the disk size change is seen by the VM: run dmesg or fdisk -l
- fdisk the disk
- within fdisk, delete the physical partition that you wish to extend, then recreate the physical partition with the same options except extend the size to use the newly added free disk space
- write out the changes to disk and exit
- reboot the VM
- run pvdisplay
- run pvresize on the newly extended partition
- verify that the resize worked by comparing pvdisplay output
- verify that the new "Free PE" has increased with vgdisplay
- use lvcreate (-n LVNAME -L SIZE VolumeGroup) or lvextend to allocate new space


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Thursday, June 25, 2009

Penetration Test Tip: Add already guessed or cracked passwords to wordlist

When doing a penetration test, password attacks, while they lack the "sex appeal" of using the latest exploits in Metasploit to 0wn a b0x3r, are still disturbingly effective. Additionally, those same passwords are likely to be used on other machines, whether they be initial passwords for new/unused accounts or the same individual uses the same password on different systems.

Either way, once you guess a password (using enum.exe or the like) or crack a password from an encrypted hash (using John the Ripper or the like), add that password to the beginning of the master wordlist or dictionary list that you will use for the remainder of the penetration test, so that password is checked earlier rather than later.

Want to learn more? Check out:
SANS Security 560: Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking


SANS Security 504: Hacker Techniques, Exploits and Incident Handling


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Friday, June 19, 2009

SANS Rocky Mountain 2009, July 7-13, in Denver, Colorado

SANS returns to the Mile High City for SANS Rocky Mountain 2009, July 7-13, in Denver, Colorado! Now more than ever, hands-on experience will set you apart from others in the field, so don't miss this opportunity to register today for the best hands-on computer security training money can buy!

We're offering these popular SANS courses emphasizing penetration testing, computer forensics, and certifications for managers and technical staff alike:

* Security 401: SANS Security Essentials Bootcamp Style (GSEC meets DoD8570 IAT II)
* Security 560: Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking (GPEN)
* Management 512: SANS Security Leadership Essentials For Managers with Knowledge Compression(TM) (GSLC certification meets DoD 8570 IAM I, II, III)
* Management 414: SANS® +S™ Training Program for the CISSP® Certification Exam (CISSP cert meets DoD8570 IAM II, III)
* Security 617: Wireless Ethical Hacking, Penetration Testing, and Defense (GAWN)

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Firefox and Java for Mac OS X 10.5 Update 4 Issues and Work Around

The most recent Java update for OS X 10.5 caused some of our Java web apps to break, here's what my coworker came up with for a work around:

Open Finder > Applications > Utilities> Java Preferences.

On the General tab, in each of the 2 windows (Java Applet Plugin & Java
Applications) drag Java SE 6 to the top of the list and then close the

For Firefox:

In the menu bar select Firefox > Preferences.

Click on the Applications tab. Find Java Web Start file in the list
under Content Type.

To the right in the Action collumn click on the drop down and select Use

Navigate to /System/Library/CoreServices/Java Web Start and click open.

Close the Preferences window.

Click on the Link to open you SANS@Home session.

When the window opens asking to open the file click on the drop down
menu and select other and navigate to /System/Library/CoreServices/Java
Web Start and click open.

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Monday, March 30, 2009

IT Security Training: SANS Security 560 - Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking, Denver, CO - starting Apr. 14, 2009

I am running a Mentor class of SANS Security 560 - Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking here in Denver, starting April 14, 2009. To sign up, login to your portal account at, then navigate to:

for more details and to register. As a favor to me, if you do register, please enter MENTOR RECRUIT in the comments section. That way, SANS knows I marketed my own class :)

Hope to see you there!


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